|VEI 7 super eruption (USGS)|
The volcano during its super-eruption
|Date||October 5, 2407|
|Eruption type||Ultra-Plinian, Super-volcanic|
|Fatalities||122,412 dead, 255,419 injured, 1257 missing|
|Damages||$122 billion (2407 USD)|
|Tsunami'||Yes, 4 separate cases of tsunamis of 40 meters in height|
|Other impacts||315 plant and 567 animal species lost significant numbers of their populations|
The 2407 eruption of Krakatoa rivalled the violence of the 1815 Mt Tambora eruption, of which the volcano is situated not far away from the island.
The eruption began with an explosion of ash from the summit beginning on October 5 at 0747 UTC, and the violence rapidly increased to reach VEI 7 by October 12th, by which time tephra, lava bombs, mud and pyroclasts were raining down over a 65 mile radius from the summit. A sound like heavy automatic gunfire was heard in India more than 3000 km away from the volcano, until news of a major volcanic eruption on Krakatoa reached the area a few days later.
Meanwhile, near Krakatoa, the sound could not be heard, but it was measured by scientists to have reached 62,585 dB, the loudest sound ever documented by humans. Rhyolithic lava exploded from the volcano from October 12-17, gradually destabilising the slopes of the volcano. Therefore, when a magnitude 7.4 earthquake hit under the volcano, the unstable peak was sheared apart, allowing slabs of rock weighing several million tons to enter the Indian Ocean, setting off tsunamis that were hundreds of meters high, which occurred 4 separate times on October 17th, after the aftershocks from the earthquakes sent more and more of the volcano sliding into the ocean, which was later directly linked to the increase in violence of the eruption, as the enormous pressures inside the magma chamber were relieved. By the end of the day, the island had been blown apart, leaving a 10 km^2 caldera in the middle of the former crater, which allowed for sea water to enter the main magma chamber, causing incredibly violent Surtsey-Ultra-Plinian eruptions for the next 5 days, before lava once again began to flow from the summit.
On October 24th, the violence of the eruption rapidly deteriorated, until a sustained moderate Strombolian eruption was all that remained by, which also deteriorated until November 12, when the volcano once again fell back into dormancy, as its reserves of magma was all used up.
In the aftermath of the eruption, 1222,412 people were confirmed dead, 255,419 were left injured, and 1257 were left missing, presumed dead after several months, which made it the second deadliest volcanic eruption on record, second only to the Minoan eruption in ~1500 BC. Rebuilding and repairs cost an unbelievable $122 billion, making it the costliest volcanic eruption on record.
On January 2, 2408, concerns were raised when a magnitude 6.2 earthquake struck the Krakatoa caldera produced a steam eruption, as many people were expecting further volcanic activity to occur within the next few days, but the eruption thankfully never materialised, and the volcano once again fell silent 2 days later. 315 plant, and 567 animal species were wiped out near the volcano, and it took nature in the area 43 years to return to normal after the eruption of 5407.